What is Operating System, its functions, list and examples. Explain Types of OS, Features and Examples. 15mins Read

What is Operating System?

is a software that acts as an interface between computer hardware components and the user. In fact, you can call it a medium through which different parts of the user and the computer can interact with each other.

Operating system is also called system software. Most people also call it “OS” by the short name. It is also called the heart of the computer, the operating system is a system software, which acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware.

Let me explain this sentence directly, whenever you run the computer, then only this OS gives you the means to use the computer. Like you listen to a song by clicking on a .mp3 file, double-clicking on a word document, opening three or four windows, writing something on the keyboard, and saving some files on the computer, etc. So you can never do all this without Operating System.

What is Operating System – What is Operating System in Hindi

Operating System is a software with the help of which you run your computer. Therefore, whenever you buy a new computer, you first get Windows 8 or Windows 10 loaded in it from the shopkeeper. And after that you take the computer or your laptop to your home. Otherwise, without an operating system, you can never even turn on your computer.

It is also a question that why is it called System Software. If you want to run User Software means Application Software in Computer, then they can never run without OS.

This OS helps in using the computer hardware well. The operating system mainly does the same thing like takes some input from the keyboard, processes the instruction, and sends the output to the computer screen.

You see this operating system only when you turn on the computer and when you turn off the computer. You live inside the computer like Game, MS word, Adobe Reader, VLC media player, Photoshop and many more software, to run them, we need a program or big software which we call Operating System.

The name of the OS used in mobile is Android, about which everyone knows. You must have come to know what the Operating System is, so let’s know about some of its functions.

examples of operating systems

Different operating systems are used for different tasks. Here I have shared the operating system list, which most people like to use.

1. Microsoft Windows

2. Google’s Android OS

3. Apple iOS

4. Apple macOS

5. Linux Operating System

All these examples of very big operating systems. Although there are not many different in them, but most people know them by these names.

operating system functions

Although the computer does a lot of work, but first of all when you turn on the computer, then the operating system is first loaded into the main memory meaning RAM and after that, it allocates all the hardware that the user software needs. Below are the different functions of the OS, know about them in more detail.

1. Memory Management

Memory Management means to manage primary and secondary memory. Main memory means RAM is a very large array of Bytes.

Meaning there are many small slots in memory where we can keep some data. Where there is an address of each branch. Main memory is the fastest memory which is used by CPU Direct. Because all the programs that the CPU runs are in the main memory only.

Operating System does all these things.

• What part of Main Memory will be used, which will not, how much will be, how much will not be.

• In multiprocessing, the OS decides which process will be given memory and how much will be given to whom.

• When the process asks for memory, it gives it to the memory OS (Process means a task or a small task which is done inside the computer)

• When the process finishes its work, the OS takes back its memory.

2. Processor Management (Process Scheduling)

When it comes to multi programming environment, the OS decides which process will get the processor and who will not get it and for how long.

This process is called Process Scheduling. Operating System does all this work.

• Operating System also sees whether the processor is empty or is doing some work, or is it free and the process has finished its work or not. If you want, you can see in Task Manager how many tasks are going on and how many are not. The program that does all this work, its name is Traffic Controller.

• CPU allocates the process.

• When the work of one process is over, then it puts the processor in other work, and frees the processor when nothing is working.

3. Device Management (Operating System)

Drivers are used in your computer, you must know that such as Sound Driver, Bluetooth Driver, Graphics Driver, WiFi Driver but they help to run different Input / Output Device, but these Drivers OS runs.

So let’s see what else this OS does.

• Tracks all computer devices and the program that does this task is named I/O Controller.

• Like different processes need devices to perform some task, then OS also does the work of device allocate. Let’s take an example, a process has to do some task like playing video, print out, then both these tasks will be done with the help of output device monitor, printer. So when both these devices have to be given to the process, the OS does this work.

• When the work of the process is over, it dealslocate the device back.

4. File Management

A lot of directories are kept organized in one file. Because with this we can easily find the data. So let’s know what is the work of OS in File Management.

• Organizes information, location and status. All this sees the file system.

• Who will get which resource.

• Resource De-allocate is to be done.

5. Security

When you turn on your computer, it asks you for that password, this means that the OS prevents your system from unauthenticated access. This keeps your computer safe. And you cannot open some programs without a password.

6. View System Performance

It sees the performance of the computer and improves the system. The OS keeps records of how long it takes to deliver a service.

7. Reporting Error

If a lot of errors are coming in the system, then the OS detects them and recovers them.

8. Creating synergy between the software and the user

• Assigns the task to the compiler, interpreter and assembler. Connects different software with the user, so that the user uses the software well.

• Provides communication between User and System.

• Operating System is stored in the BIOS. Everything else also makes the application user-friendly.

Features of operating system

Now let us know what are the features of the operating system :-

• An Operating System is a collection of many programs, which runs other programs.

• It controls all input/output devices.

• The operating system is responsible for running all the application software.

• The work of Process Scheduling means allocating and deallocating the process.

• Informs you about the errors and threats happening in the system.

• Establishes good coordination between User and Computer Programs.

By now you all must have come to know what the Operating System does (Function of Operating System in Hindi), so let us now know how many types of OS are there.

Types of Operating System – Types Of Operating System in Hindi

Technology is changing day by day and everything is changing with it, so the use of operating system is increasing in every field like railway, research, satellite, industry, so know how many types of operating systems are there.

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1. Batch Operating System

2. Simple Batch Operating System

3. Multiprogramming Batch Operating System

4. Network Operating System

5. Multiprocessor Operating System

6. Distributed Operating System

7. Time-Sharing Operating System

8. Real-Time Operating System

1. Batch Processing Operating System

Batch processing operating systems were brought in only to overcome the problems of the earlier times. If we talk about the earlier systems, then it used to take more setup time.

At the same time, this much set up time has been reduced in this batch processing systems where jobs are processed in batches. At the same time, this type of operating system is called batch processing operating system in Hindi.

In this, any similar jobs are submitted to the CPU for processing and they are run simultaneously.

The main function of Batch Processing System is that they execute the jobs in batch automatically. The most important thing that does this work is ‘Batch Monitor’ which is located in the low-end of the main memory.

i) Simple Batch System

This is the oldest system in which there was no direct interaction between the user and the computer. In this system, the user had to bring the task or job to a storage unit to process it and submit it to the computer operator.

In this, all the jobs were given to the computer in a batch or line. Within a few days or within a few months, that job was processed and an output device had an output store. This system used to process jobs in batch, hence its name was also called batch mode operating system.

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ii) MultiProgramming Batch Systems

In this operating system, a job was picked up from memory and executed. The OS which keeps on processing one job, if the job needs I/O at the same time, then the OS gives the second job to the CPU and I/O to the first one, because of this the CPU is always busy.

The number of jobs in the memory are always less than the number of jobs in the disk. If a lot of jobs remain in the line, then the operating system decides which job will be processed first. CPU never remains idle in this OS.

Time Sharing system is also a part of Multiprogramming system. Response time is very less in Time Sharing System but CPU usage is more in Multi Programming.


• No direct interaction between User and Computer.

• The job that comes first is the first process, so the user had to wait longer.

2. Network Operating System

Its abbreviation is NOS, the full form of NOS is “Network Operating System”. This network operating system provides its services to computers that are connected to a network.

If they are given examples, then they include shared file access, shared applications, and printing capabilities.

NOS is a type of software that allows multiple computers to communicate simultaneously, to share files and also with other hardware devices.

The earlier Microsoft Windows and Apple operating systems were not designed for a single computer usage and network usage. But as computer networks started growing slowly and their use also increased, and such operating systems also started developing.

There are mainly two types of a NOS (Network Operating System in Hindi):-

Peer-to-peer (P2P) OS, which is installed in every computer. The other is a client-server model, in which one machine has a server and the other has client software installed.

Types of Network Operating System

Talking about the types of Network Operating System, then they are mainly of two basic types, peer-to-peer NOS and client/server NOS:

1. Peer-to-peer network operating systems allow users to share network resources that are saved in a common, accessible network location. In this architecture, all devices are treated equally according to functionality.

Peer-to-peer works best on small to medium LANs, plus they are also very cheap to set up.

2. Client/server network operating systems provide users to access all the resources through a server. In its architecture, all functions and applications are unified under a file server that can be used by individual client actions to execute them, even if they are in any physical location.

Client/server is very difficult to install, while it requires a high amount of technical maintenance. Moreover, it also costs more.

Its biggest advantage is that the network is controlled centrally in this, so that any changes can be made easily, while additional technology can also be incorporated.

We can represent a network operating system as a basic OS that runs a network device, such as a router or firewall.

3. Multiprocessor System

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In a multiprocessor system, many processors use a common physical memory. Computing power is very fast. All these processors work under one operating system. Here are some of its advantages below


• The speed is very high because Multiprocessor is used.

• If many tasks are processed simultaneously, so the system throughput increases here. Which means, how many job processes can be done in a second.

• In this OS, the task is divided into sub-tasks, and each sub-task is given to different processors, especially because of this, a task is completed in a very short time.

4. Distributed Operating System

The only purpose of using Distributed Operating System is that the world has a powerful OS and microprocessors have become very cheap, as well as there is a lot of improvement in communication technology.

Due to this advancement, now Distributed OS was made, whose price is very cheap and keeps the far away computers blocked through the network. Which in itself is a great achievement.


• All the distant resources can be used easily, which resources do not remain empty.

• Processing is faster with them.

• The load is less on the host machine, because the load gets distributed.

5. Time Sharing Operating System

In this, some time is provided by the OS to complete each task correctly, so that each task can be completed correctly. At the same time, every user uses a single system in which time is given to the CPU. This type of system is also called multitasking system.

At the same time, whatever task is done in it, it can either be done by single user or it can also be done by multi user.

The amount of time it takes to complete each task is called quantum. At the same time, only after completing each task, the OS again starts the next task.


Let us know about the advantages of time-sharing operating system.

• In this OS is given equal opportunity to complete each task.

• It is not an easy task to have duplicasy of software in it. which is equal to .

• CPU idle time can be easily reduced in this.


Let us know about the disadvantages of time-sharing operating system.

• The issue of reliability is seen more in this.

• It has to take care of the security and integrity of everything.

• The issue of data communication is a common problem in this.

Examples of time-sharing, operating system are:- Unix

6. Real-Time Operating System

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This is the most Advance Operating System, which does real-time processing, which means while leaving the missile, railway ticket booking, satellite, if everything goes into the water even after a second, then this operating system does not remain idle at all.

These are of two types,

1. Hard Real-Time Operating System

This is the operating system, within which time is given to complete the task, the work gets completed within that time.

2. Soft Real-Time

In Soft Real-Time, the punctuality would have been a little less, what happens if a task is running and another task comes at the same time, then the new task is given priority first. This was some information Types Of Operating System in Hindi. Before this you have known what is Operating System in Hindi.

What is Client Operating System?

A computer desktop is a standalone computer processing unit. They are designed to perform automation tasks for people. A desktop computer is very unique because it does not require any networks or external components to operate.

This client operating system is mostly used in computer desktops or portable devices. This operating system is typically different from centralized servers because it supports only one user.

Smartphones and small computer devices use the client operating system. This operating system manages the components of the device, including printers, monitors, and cameras. Each computer typically has a specific operating system.

These client operating systems provide multiprocessing power that too at very minimal cost. Client Operating Systems include Windows®, Linux®, Mac® and Android®.

Each operating system is designed to perform some specific function on specific hardware. This hardware compatibility is the primary consideration on the basis of which an operating system is selected for client computers.

For example, Windows® is currently the most widely used client operating system.

What did you learn today?

So friends today’s information is very important. So it is more important for a particular student. Now if this question comes in the exam, what is operating system and type of operating system then you can easily answer it.

Well, according to me, the OS is bringing new features very fast, like talk about Windows 10 itself. Because in the beginning it was told that the OS is the heart of the computer. If you want to ask any question, then definitely write in the comment box below and if you want to give any suggestion, then definitely give it. If you have not subscribed to our blog yet, then definitely subscribe

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